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The whole history of cosmonautics in one place

Somehow it happened that I visited Kaluga in sufficient regularity, usually either passing through some of the local estate. or just cases.

Never got to walk around the city, and even more so to see the State Museum of the history of cosmonautics named after K. E. Tsiolkovsky. But once again it so happened that I had to go to Kaluga for one printing, meaning we had to ride 100 miles for 5 minutes. In the end, as in Kaluga, I got the idea to finally carry out his wish.

The state Museum of the history of cosmonautics named after K. E. Tsiolkovsky in Kaluga — the world’s first and Russia’s largest space Museum. In its creation participated personally famous designer Korolev and Yuri Gagarin. Last June 13, 1961 laid the first stone in the Foundation of the future Museum:

And after 6 years, the new Museum welcomed its first visitors. In the Museum you can get acquainted with the domestic history of cosmonautics, from the first artificial satellite of the Earth to modern long-term orbital stations. However, many of the original machines that had been in space you can see with your own eyes. Continue reading

Characteristics of comets

In addition, comets can carry the names of the people who discovered them, e.g., comet Halley, comet Machholz, comet shoemaker–levy 9 comet or Mac Note.

Movement and spatial distribution

All comets are members of the Solar system. They, like the planets, are subject to the laws of gravity, but move very peculiar. All the planets revolve around the Sun in one direction (which is referred to as “direct” as opposed to “reverse”) on nearly circular orbits that lie roughly in one plane (the Ecliptic), while comets move in both forward and reverse directions on highly elongated (eccentric) orbits, inclined at different angles to the Ecliptic. It is the nature of motion immediately gives the comet.

Long-period comets (orbital period greater than 200 years) come from regions located thousands of times further than the most remote planets, and their orbits are tilted at all angles. Short-period comets (period less than 200 years) come from the region of the outer planets, moving in the forward direction for orbits lying close to the Ecliptic. Continue reading

Coma of the comet

The comet’s coma or head of the comet . is a fuzzy mist surrounding the actual nucleus of the comet. Including the tail, the coma is all we actually see, watching the comet from the Earth.

The shape and structure of the comet’s coma

The shape of the coma can vary from comet to comet and for the same comet during its passage, depending on its distance from the Sun and the corresponding quantities of dust and gas. Pale or bright comets producing little dust and often have a round shape, and comets that produce a significant amount of cometary dust have fan-shaped or parabolic shape.

This is due to released different-sized dust grains: those that are bigger are moving to the left along the trajectory of a cometary orbit, and the smaller particles are repelled from the Sun using light pressure.

Coma has 2 main components: gas-shell and shell dust. In fact, scientists believe that comets produce almost the same amount of gas and dust. Continue reading

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