Comets: the oldest inhabitants of the Solar system
J. L. Lagrange (1813) was also based on firmly established facts – the presence of comets that definitely move in elliptical orbits, including short-period. He explained the origin of comets gigantic volcanic explosions – emissions (eruption) with giant planets. It is, in principle, could explain the nature of the orbits of short-period comets. Subsequently, the views of La Grange shared and developed a number of scientists, among which the most important contribution of the Soviet astronomer S. K. Bo, who worked in this direction with the 20-ies to 80-ies of our century. He has eliminated the biggest internal difficulty is the concept of Lagrange – the necessity of the ejection of cometary masses (nuclei) with the “surface” of the giant planets with their powerful gravity fields, the overcoming of which requires an initial speed of 60 km/s and more. Giant planets also have thick (the length of many thousands of miles) and very dense atmosphere, in the middle of the twentieth century has been very problematic the very existence of a solid surface planets – giants beneath these atmospheres. Continue reading
In addition, comets can carry the names of the people who discovered them, e.g., comet Halley, comet Machholz, comet shoemaker–levy 9 comet or Mac Note.
Movement and spatial distribution
All comets are members of the Solar system. They, like the planets, are subject to the laws of gravity, but move very peculiar. All the planets revolve around the Sun in one direction (which is referred to as “direct” as opposed to “reverse”) on nearly circular orbits that lie roughly in one plane (the Ecliptic), while comets move in both forward and reverse directions on highly elongated (eccentric) orbits, inclined at different angles to the Ecliptic. It is the nature of motion immediately gives the comet.
Long-period comets (orbital period greater than 200 years) come from regions located thousands of times further than the most remote planets, and their orbits are tilted at all angles. Short-period comets (period less than 200 years) come from the region of the outer planets, moving in the forward direction for orbits lying close to the Ecliptic. Continue reading
About the discovery of the ninth planet of the Solar system two astronomers from the California Institute of technology in Pasadena became known on January 20. One of them — the native of Russia Konstantin Batygin — spoke about the search for Planet X, the difficulties with the title the new heavenly bodies and unsolved mysteries of the Solar system.
What is an open planet?
Konstantin Batygin . She falls into the category of dwarf planets. This celestial body is quite massive. Our model gives a mass of about ten earth, this planet is just a giant. Now it is defined as a celestial object whose gravitational field is dominant in that part of the Solar system.
In General, there is not even a question: it’s a planet or not. We know about it, because its gravity affects the orbit of the farthest objects in the Kuiper belt. The very mathematical modeling relies on the fact that this planet has enough mass for gravity to dominate in the Solar system. Continue reading