Solar system is a system of planets orbiting around a star, the Sun. Among those planets is our Earth. The solar System consists of the sun and of celestial bodies held by solar gravity. The mass of the sun is about 330 000 times the mass of the earth and makes up 99.8% mass entire solar system. The diameter of the sun is 1 400 000 km, i.e. about 109 Earth diameters. In the solar system except the sun is made up of eight planets, over 150 moons, and small bodies such as asteroids, comets and meteors.
In order of proximity to the Sun, the eight planets are mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
To measure distances in the solar system is used “astronomical unit” (AU). One AU corresponds to the distance from the earth to the Sun. Thus, the distance of one AU is nearly 150 million kilometers. For example, Jupiter rotates on its orbit 5.2 AU, i.e. the distance from the Sun is 5.2 times larger than the Earth. Continue reading
The comet’s coma or head of the comet . is a fuzzy mist surrounding the actual nucleus of the comet. Including the tail, the coma is all we actually see, watching the comet from the Earth.
The shape and structure of the comet’s coma
The shape of the coma can vary from comet to comet and for the same comet during its passage, depending on its distance from the Sun and the corresponding quantities of dust and gas. Pale or bright comets producing little dust and often have a round shape, and comets that produce a significant amount of cometary dust have fan-shaped or parabolic shape.
This is due to released different-sized dust grains: those that are bigger are moving to the left along the trajectory of a cometary orbit, and the smaller particles are repelled from the Sun using light pressure.
Coma has 2 main components: gas-shell and shell dust. In fact, scientists believe that comets produce almost the same amount of gas and dust. Continue reading
The U.S. space Agency plans to launch a probe, equipped with a solar sail. He will leave earth orbit and go to the distant asteroid due to the pressure of sunlight. Like the ships of the discoverers of the 15th century, in 2018, a small space probe will unfurl the sail and start a journey to a faraway asteroid, marking the beginning of a new phase in space exploration.
The idea of using solar sails for space flight was proposed almost a hundred years ago, Soviet rocketry pioneer Friedrich Zander. It was based on the fact that Photons of light can exert pressure on the illuminated surface, giving him his momentum. Therefore, if you expand behind the ship a giant mirror, his speed will gradually increase without using fuel.
However, the first experimental devices were established only at the very end of the twentieth century. This is because space sailboats should be very easy, and their embodiment in life became possible only after the emergence of a truly compact electronics. Continue reading