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The History of cosmonautics

The methodology of extra-curricular activities

“History of cosmonautics”

Goal . formation of knowledge about the history of space exploration.

Learning objectives:

Secondary . formation of concepts:

– theoretical and practical assumptions kosmonavtiki research;

– the relation of the space with natural-mathematical Sciences and engineering;

– on the practical application of means of space exploration in science, technology, culture, industry and agriculture;

– about the space: space craft (SPACECRAFT), launch vehicles (LV), artificial Earth satellites (AES); spacecraft (SC), orbital stations (OS), automatic interplanetary stations (AWS);

– about the history of space research in Russia and abroad.

Educational . formation of scientific Outlook of pupils in the course of exploring the history of human knowledge. Patriotic education while getting acquainted with the outstanding role of Russian science and technology in space development. Polytechnic education and labour upbringing in presenting information on the practical application of space exploration. Continue reading

Comets of the Solar system

Comets: the oldest inhabitants of the Solar system

J. L. Lagrange (1813) was also based on firmly established facts – the presence of comets that definitely move in elliptical orbits, including short-period. He explained the origin of comets gigantic volcanic explosions – emissions (eruption) with giant planets. It is, in principle, could explain the nature of the orbits of short-period comets. Subsequently, the views of La Grange shared and developed a number of scientists, among which the most important contribution of the Soviet astronomer S. K. Bo, who worked in this direction with the 20-ies to 80-ies of our century. He has eliminated the biggest internal difficulty is the concept of Lagrange – the necessity of the ejection of cometary masses (nuclei) with the “surface” of the giant planets with their powerful gravity fields, the overcoming of which requires an initial speed of 60 km/s and more. Giant planets also have thick (the length of many thousands of miles) and very dense atmosphere, in the middle of the twentieth century has been very problematic the very existence of a solid surface planets – giants beneath these atmospheres. Continue reading

Solar system

Solar system is the planetary system that includes the Sun. and all the objects orbiting it – planets, moons, asteroids. comet. a large number of meteoroids, gas and cosmic dust .

But how was Solar system formed? The universe formed through the Big Bang. There is the Big Bang theory, which says that long ago the universe was small and hot lump. Suddenly it exploded, expanded space, the temperature of the particles decreased considerably. Due to the force of gravity began to gather clouds of matter, the result of which was formed all the galaxies and stars. It took about 8 billion years after the Big Bang, before the Solar system was formed. The matter is unevenly distributed in space and began to attract the dust and gas. Formed dust and gas clouds, they eventually formed star, the Sun. From other particles of the cloud formed other objects.

Components of the Solar system are divided into categories:

1. Planet

3. Small body

The center of the Solar system is the Sun . It accounts for almost all of the bulk system – 99,87 %. Continue reading

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