Solar system is a system of planets orbiting around a star, the Sun. Among those planets is our Earth. The solar System consists of the sun and of celestial bodies held by solar gravity. The mass of the sun is about 330 000 times the mass of the earth and makes up 99.8% mass entire solar system. The diameter of the sun is 1 400 000 km, i.e. about 109 Earth diameters. In the solar system except the sun is made up of eight planets, over 150 moons, and small bodies such as asteroids, comets and meteors.
In order of proximity to the Sun, the eight planets are mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
To measure distances in the solar system is used “astronomical unit” (AU). One AU corresponds to the distance from the earth to the Sun. Thus, the distance of one AU is nearly 150 million kilometers. For example, Jupiter rotates on its orbit 5.2 AU, i.e. the distance from the Sun is 5.2 times larger than the Earth. Continue reading
Scientists shared their impressions
21 January 2016, two scientists from the California Institute of technology, Professor Mike brown and Professor Konstantin Batygin has officially announced that they have found a ninth planet in our Solar system. According to their mathematical models, it is a gas giant like Uranus or Neptune, the mass of the discovered planet 10 times the mass of Earth, it rotates in an orbit 20 times larger than the earth and it requires from 10,000 to 20,000 years to make one complete revolution around the Sun. However, very reliable model of scientists has demonstrated and existing telescopes have not yet managed to see her.
Scientists have been very mixed on the nature of their activities and perhaps that is why they have achieved such amazing results. So brown has increasingly resorted to methods of observation and explores distant objects in our Solar system, whereas Batygin relies more on the laws of physics and mathematical calculations. Apparently, that tandem allowed the researchers to calculate the so-called ninth planet. Continue reading
“Our observation was aimed at studying the chemical composition of the comet Tempel 1,” says Michael Mumma (Michael Turner) from space flight Center NASA Goddard (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center). The Mumma and his colleagues used a powerful telescope, the Keck Observatory in Hawaii for a detailed analysis of the light emitted by the gas of the comet at the moment of impact. Since each type of atoms and molecules has its own characteristic frequency of radiation, on the basis of this, scientists were able to determine the chemical composition of the comet’s nucleus.
Comets are blocks, which consist of ice and dust that move in elongated orbits. It is believed that the nucleus of the comet is gas and dust formations, remaining after the formation of the main bodies of the solar system.
When approaching the Sun, its radiation heats the comet’s nucleus, releasing dust and gas. The latter form a coma (cloud around the nucleus) and one or more tails. Repeated heating leads to the fact that disappear from the surface of the substance having a low boiling point. In fact, the nucleus of a comet is formed “crust” that is different chemically from its internal regions. This makes it difficult to determine the true composition of the comet just by studying the gas in its tail. Continue reading