Model of the Solar system

Solar system is a system of planets orbiting around a star, the Sun. Among those planets is our Earth. The solar System consists of the sun and of celestial bodies held by solar gravity. The mass of the sun is about 330 000 times the mass of the earth and makes up 99.8% mass entire solar system. The diameter of the sun is 1 400 000 km, i.e. about 109 Earth diameters. In the solar system except the sun is made up of eight planets, over 150 moons, and small bodies such as asteroids, comets and meteors.

In order of proximity to the Sun, the eight planets are mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

To measure distances in the solar system is used “astronomical unit” (AU). One AU corresponds to the distance from the earth to the Sun. Thus, the distance of one AU is nearly 150 million kilometers. For example, Jupiter rotates on its orbit 5.2 AU, i.e. the distance from the Sun is 5.2 times larger than the Earth.

The planets in the solar system is sometimes divided into two groups. The first one includes the four terrestrial planets (inner planets) and the second one the four gas giant planets (outer planets). The four inner planets have dense, rocky compositions. Gas giants consist mostly of hydrogen, helium, water, ammonia and methane and do not have a solid surface.

Terrestrial planets

Mercury, the smallest of the eight planets, and also the closest to the sun. The surface of mercury resembles the surface of our moon. Mercury is heavily cratered and has no natural satellites no substantial atmosphere. The temperature on its surface is very different in the daytime and at night. Mercury’s orbit is 0.387 AU, its diameter is about a third of the Earth (more precisely, 0.38 of the earth), the orbital period 0.24 earth years.

Venus is similar in size, gravity and bulk composition to Earth. However, conditions on the Venusian surface differ radically from those on earth. It is the hottest planet. The temperature of its surface reaches 400 degrees Celsius, probably due to saturation with carbon dioxide. Venus orbits the Sun at an average distance of about 0.72 AU, its diameter is 0.95 that of earth. Venus is 0.615 earth years from.

Earth is the largest and densest of the terrestrial planets. The earth rotates around the Sun at a distance of 1AE = 150 million km the Earth’s Diameter is about 12700 km, and the orbital period is, of course, to one earth year. Earth has one natural satellite, the Moon, the only large satellite of a terrestrial type planets in the system. The average distance from the Earth’s center to the center of the moon is 380,000 km = 0.0026 AE, the Moon is about 400 times closer to Earth than the Sun. It is the largest satellite in the whole p system relative to the size of the planet around which it rotates. The diameter of the moon – 3476 km, i.e. slightly more than one fourth of the earth (0.273). The moon makes a complete orbit around the Earth every 29.5 days (about a month).

Mars is the second smallest planet in the solar system. Mars has two moons, Phobos (22km) and Deimos (12.6 km) – small and irregularly shaped. The atmosphere of Mars consists mainly of carbon dioxide with traces of water vapor. Of all the planets, climatic seasons on Mars most earth-like. Greater removal of Mars from the Sun explains the low temperatures on its surface. In average, they fluctuate around -30C, but during the day can rise to 15C. On Mars, as on Earth, has polar ice caps, but they consist of water, but of frozen carbon dioxide. These glaciers can be seen in the telescope, where they are visible as white spots.

Gas giants.

Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. It consists mostly of hydrogen and helium. Jupiter consists mainly of hydrogen with a small admixture of helium. May also have a rocky core of heavier elements under high pressure. Jupiter is surrounded by a faint planetary ring system. Jupiter has over 60 moons, including the four large moons Gallilei opened by Galileo Galilei in 1610. IO obrashatsa at a distance of 3643 km from Jupiter, Europa is 3122 km, Ganymede 5262 km, and Callisto – 4821 km The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is 5.2 times greater than earth (5.2 AU)and its orbital period is 11.86 earth years. The diameter of Jupiter is 11.2 times bigger than earth.

Saturn – second largest planet in the solar system. Saturn is known for its system of rings, which makes it the most visually remarkable object in the solar system. The rings consist mainly of ice particles and rocky debris and dust. The diameter of the rings are over 420,000 km, but the thickness is just a few hundred meters. Saturn has many satellites. Know 60, but the number is growing with the improvement of telescopes. Titan – the largest moon of Saturn, its diameter is 5150 km, and Other large moon – Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, dione, Rhea, Iapetus. The average distance between Saturn and the Sun is 9.53 AU, its diameter is 9.45 times larger than the earth and saturnine year to 29.65 times the earth’s.

Uranus is the third largest planet in the solar system. The atmosphere of Uranus contains mostly like Jupiter and Saturn, hydrogen (83%) and helium (15%), but also water, ammonia and methane. Uranus has a weak system of planetary rings, consisting of particles size of up to 10 meters. Uranus has 27 known natural satellites. The five major this is Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Oberon and Titania. The average distance from Uranus to the Sun approximately 19,2 AE. Its diameter is 4 times larger than the earth, and the orbital period around the Sun equal to the earth 84.1 year.

Neptune is the eighth and farthest planet from the Sun in the solar system. The diameter and chemical composition of Neptune is similar to Uranus. Unlike Uranus, Neptune’s atmosphere is characterized by frequent powerful storms. Neptune also has a faint and fragmented ring system, which was confirmed by Voyager 2. Neptune’s known 13 satellites. The largest one, Triton, is the coldest body known today in the solar system. The temperature of its surface is equal -228 C. The average distance from Neptune to the sun is 30.0 AU, its diameter 4 times greater than earth’s and a period of revolution around the Sun is 164.9 earth years.

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