Short-term space flights of man
Manned flights on the orbital stations
In the first decade of the era of manned spaceflight duration increased from 108 min to 18 days. Made in this period, medical and biological research (in the Russian ships “Vostok”, “Voskhod”, “Union”; in the U.S. project “mercury”, “Gemini”, “Apollo”) have proved the possibility of relatively short-term (up to 2-3 weeks) stay safe man in the space flight environment and active activities outside of the ship.
The most significant changes in the major systems of the human body were observed after flights. They were shown to decrease the body’s resistance to physical and orthostatic stress; impaired coordination of movements and regulation of the vertical posture; a reduction of body weight, hydration of the body, decreasing the volume of blood plasma and erythrocyte mass; asthenia. These changes in General increased with increasing duration of space flights and after flights, lasting 14 to 18 days, were practically significant.
Post-flight revealed improvements of indicated that to further increase the duration of flights you need to apply a system of appropriate protective and preventive measures that will facilitate adaptation of the human body to terrestrial conditions after the completion of the flight. Based on this and on osnovanyonyj by this time, ideas about the mechanisms of influence of factors of the flight (including microgravity) on human organism have been developed pathogenic principles and systems of prevention tools and in-depth medical examinations. This circumstance was a necessary prerequisite to a substantial increase in the duration of human stays in space flight.
Manned flights on the orbital stations . Starting from the second decade of the era of manned flights the main direction of development of Astronautics in Russia is operation of long-term operating orbital stations, the first of which (“Salyut-1”) was made on 19 April 1971 A large amount of space stations allows you to place them on the hardware system to an extensive biomedical research and tools for preventing adverse effects of weightlessness and create more comfortable living conditions and personal hygiene as well as reduce impact on the body hypokinesia surrounding the flying ships of small volume.
To date (January 1989) in the world running 9 space stations (8 in Russia and 1 in USA). In Russia on the orbital stations “Salyut” and “Mir” made a manned flight 38 (75 man-flights), including 17 long-term (from 1 month to 1 year) with the participation of 27 astronauts, 10 of which twice carried out flights lasting more than 1 month. In the U.S. at the station “Skylab” flew three expeditions 3 people each (9 astronauts), each of which lasted 28,56, and 84 days, respectively.
The increased duration of space flights up to 1 year and more is made possible through the use of preventive measures, which ensured the maintenance of good health and sufficient working capacity of cosmonauts in flight and facilitates adaptation to terrestrial conditions (reinsertion) in the postflight period.
An important addition to medical research in terms of manned flights is to further conduct biological experiments in space with the purpose of deeper and thorough study of the mechanism of influence of space flight factors, especially weightlessness, on the processes of life. In Russia in the period from 1973 to 1985 was running 7 biosatellites, specifically designed for biological experiments in space flight. The duration of the flight, the first five of them was 18.5—22 days.
On Board the biosatellites were carried out experiments with different organisms — monkeys, rats, turtles, fish, insects, crustaceans, bird eggs, seeds and prorostki higher plants, lower fungi, bacterial cells, cultures of plant and animal cells. During these experiments evaluated the effect of weightlessness on basic life processes, we investigated the mechanism of adaptation of different physiological systems to weightlessness and readaptation to gravity, studied the combined effects on the body of weightlessness and space radiation, analysed the biological effects of artificial gravity.