Small bodies of the Solar system


The rule of titzius-Bode r=0.3*2n+ 0,4 (.e)In the XIII century, astronomers searched for a planet whose orbit is held in the space between Mars and Jupiter In the beginning of the XIX century Italian astronomer Piazzi discovered the first minor planet (asteroid) Ceres.Opened the asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter

The movement of asteroids

The asteroids move around the Sun in the same direction as that of large planitia orbits have large excentricitate of them are removed at aphelion the orbit of Saturn, and perihelion closer to the Earth Mars and Hermes in 1937 passed from Earth to 580 000 km Icarus every 19 years closer to the Ground (2007)

There are about 300 thousand

Physical characteristics of asteroids

The majority shapeless glibomet diameters of from several km to several tens of kobsa mass of all the asteroids in 20 times less than the mass Lunyu some asteroids have satellites


– fragments of asteroids that fell to Earth; the motion of the debris in the earth’s atmosphere there is a strong shock wave, in which the temperature reaches hundreds of thousands of Kelvin;Large meteorites on the site of the crash form craters





Consist mainly of iron (91%) and Nickel (8,5%)

Contain oxygen and silicon, a lot of magnesium, but also hydrocarbons

There are oxygen and silicon, as well as iron and Nickel

Arizona meteorite

The diameter of the crater formed 1200 m mass meteorite is estimated at 200000t

The Tunguska meteorite

June 30, 1908 godwary, which ended in the flight of the cosmic body, tumbled down trees on an area of 2000 sq. mvisual wildfire, optical, acoustic and seismic alleniana wave circled the globe

Sikhote-Alin meteorite

On 12 February 1947 in the form of numerous iron fragments (meteor rain) fell in the Sikhote-Alin meteorite. Managed to collect tens of tons of meteoritic material

Comets, the “tailed” stars

Main parts of a comet:comets golovanovsky almost the same dimensions as a small asteroidbelt head reaches hundreds of thousands of kilometers, and the tails extend for tens and hundreds of millions of km

The orbits of comets

The orbits of most comets is greatly elongated ellipticalmachine (T≤ 10 years) comet Encke (3.3 years)Long-period (T≥10 years) Halley’s comet (76 years)

The nature of comets

The mass of comets to 0.0001 mass Zemlyaka consists of a mixture of frozen gases (ammonia, methane, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, CYANOGEN)At the approach of the comet to the Sun, the nucleus warms up. and from it are gases and dust that surround the nucleus and form the head and tail of the comet

The tails of comets

The closer the comet approaches the Sun, the more it warms up the core and, consequently, increases the release of gases and dust, but simultaneously increases and the light pressure on it. Therefore, the tail increases and becomes more visible.Basically, the tail of a comet directed from the Sun

The meteors – falling stars

Meteor is the phenomenon of the flash of a small cosmic body. invading at a speed of 11 to 73 km/s in earth’s atmosphere.The height of the fire 80 – 120 km bolide is a bright meteor that often has the appearance of fire balls with glowing tails

Meteor showers

Every year in the same night can be observed especially a lot of meteors. Radiant is a small portion of the sky, from which meteors fly.Meteor showers occur when Earth encounters a swarm of meteoroids.

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