The science of studying celestial bodies and the Universe, astronomy . is one of the most important, since the beginning of time and reveals the secrets of our planet, Solar system and the Universe. The solar system consists of the Sun and many other celestial bodies that revolve around the Sun. It is located in Orion, one of the outer arm of the milky Way galaxy . the sleeves of these zones, which are characterized by a low density of matter.
What is in our Solar system?
In our solar system, you can find the planets mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, and their satellites.
In the beginning, people thought that our planet Earth is in the center of the Universe, and the Sun, the stars revolve around the Earth. Copernicus, born in 1473, was the first person who proved that the Earth together with other planets of our solar system revolve around the Sun.
The sun is at the center of our Solar system and is the main source of energy. It consists of hydrogen 74%, helium 25%, and other heavy items in small quantities. Inside the core of the Sun, the temperature reaches about 15 million degrees Celsius.
The planets are the largest objects in our solar system after the Sun. Although planets do not produce energy, they reflect widelyused and heat from the Sun. The planets are divided into two categories: earth-like and gaseous planets.
The terrestrial planets are composed of silicates and have an iron core which is surrounded by the mantle. On their surface you can find volcanoes, mountains, canyons, craters. Is planets: mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars.
Gaseous planets mostly of gas, but may have a metallic core. They consist of hydrogen and helium-Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.
The first planet in the Solar system mercury . the closest to the Sun. Its name comes from mercury, the Roman God of Commerce and is the smallest planet. Because of its small distance to the Sun, its temperature is in the range of 179 – 427 Celsius during the day and at night, the temperature is about -183 degrees Celsius. On the planet’s surface, sunlight is 6.5 times more intense than Earth, and it has no atmosphere. Around the Sun makes a full revolution every 88 days.
Venus is the second planet of the Solar system . It is situated at a distance of 108 million kilometres from the Sun and similar to Earth. It has the atmosphere of carbon dioxide 96% and 3.5% of nitrogen. Its temperature reaches 470 degrees Celsius and has a characteristic clouds that produce acid rain. Its surface is smaller than Earth and its orbit around the Sun lasts 243 days.
The earth is called “Blue planet”. The distance from the earth to the Sun 150 million kilometers, its atmosphere consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% other gases. It also is the only planet in our Solar system that has liquid water, with the exception of satellite Europe.
The only Earth satellite, the Moon . she plays the role of stabilizer of the movement of our planet. The moon is the second brightest celestial body in our Solar system, reflecting sunlight.
Rotation around Earth lasts 27 days, 7 hours, 43 minutes and 11,47 seconds. The surface temperature of the moon ranges from 130 degrees during the day to -200 during the night.
Mars is the outermost terrestrial planet zone of our Solar system . named after the Roman God of war, also called the “red planet” because of its red color, which gives the iron oxide on its surface. A day on Mars lasts half an hour longer than on Earth, a year approximately twice longer than on Earth. Mars has 2 satellites, “Deimos and Phobos”.
Jupiter is the first gaseous planet . his nickname is “gas giant”. He has 59 known satellites and is considered to be the 5th planet from the Sun. It is the largest planet in our solar system and its volume is 1300 times larger than Earth. The orbit of Jupiter around the Sun of 11.86 years lasts, and its components include 86% hydrogen, 14% helium, traces of rock, water, methane and ammonia. On Jupiter storms the strongest storms.
The next Saturn gas giant of the Solar system . a planet with a magnetic field 578 times greater than that of the Earth. The peculiarity of this planet is that it has 4 split rings. It has 60 known satellites, the largest is named Titan. Saturn has periodic storms that reach 1800 km / s and occur every 30 years.
Uranus, the seventh planet from the Sun . has no appreciable magnetic field and is special because she has the most luminous clouds in the Solar system. It consists of hydrogen, helium, ice and rocks. In addition, it is the first planet that was discovered using a telescope, Uranus is surrounded by rings and has 27 moons.
The last planet in the Solar system Neptune . characterized by the fact that he has the coldest atmosphere in the Solar system. Was discovered by Galileo in 1612 . but he believed that it was a fixed star. Neptune also has rings, but they are thin and have the ice particles. On its surface raging strong wind.
Between Mars and Jupiter there is the asteroid belt . which has more than 30,000 asteroids, together with the heavenly body of “Ceres” . the largest object in the belt.
And another body in the Solar system Pluto . who was considered until recently the 9th planet from the Sun. Its full rotation takes 247,8 years. Scientists do not know much about Pluto because it is very far and it is proof that our technology and progress are at the level of development of the baby.