The history of Chinese Astronautics
Actually, I got my hands on a smartphone that fully supports navigation using the Chinese navigation system of the Big dipper). On the market, these smartphones should be out in mid to late 2014, but that’s not it.
I thought about how this system works, who and what drove these satellites into orbit and decided to write a brief overview of the history of Chinese Astronautics. Anyone interested — welcome under kat.
Why does the Chinese space program is called chiconautla? Do not suffer, the people of Thailand and Taiwan is not to blame. Just on the Chinese space sounds like (Taicang), which translated means “Too empty”.
The date of birth of the Chinese space can be considered on 16 November 1957. It is in this day was founded by (China national research Institute on rockets) .
Then, of course, he looked a little different.
China national research Institute on rockets
The first spaceport was built a year later — in October 1958. Called it (Casualise a satellite launch centre), it is located in Inner Mongolia Autonomous region around the city of Jiuquan), which, incidentally, is scenepolice Gansu). An area of 2800 square kilometers.
The launch pad of the cosmodrome Jiuquan
It is from this spaceport 5 November 1960 launched the first rocket. However, the goals of this rocket was far from peaceful.(East wind-1) was first made in China ballistic missile short-range( up to 1000 km). Now the layout is stored in the Museum of the PLA.
The rocket “the East wind-1” before running
So still some people consider the birthday of taikonautti for April 24, 1970. On this day, from the Jiuquan cosmodrome launched the first satellite of the peace, made in China — the East is Red-1)
Postcard Mail China pictured her companion “the East is Red-1”
As booster was used (long March 1) — first booster, made in China. In all there were two versions of the CZ-1 CZ1-d Differed from the second series of the first bit of reduced length and increased useful mass, which she was able to launch to the orbit. Was used three-stage layout.
According to some reports, the first launch of the same satellite was held a year earlier — November 16, 1969, but failed. In the official sources of such information.
Launch vehicle (long March 1) to the satellite (East is Red 1) at the Baikonur Jiuquan.
A new modification of this family of launch vehicles CZ-2 was first launched on 5 November 1974. Because of a broken wire in the control system of the rocket lost orientation in space and fell to the ground.
Rocket “long March 2” after take-off and for a few seconds before falling
On the rocket work was carried out, and a new modification of the CZ-2C F-01 November 26, 1975 successfully launched into orbit China’s first satellite, which then successfully landed on Earth.
Landing the satellite
Launch vehicles CZ-2 in various modifications is still produced. These are light units that are able to put into orbit a weight of 3850 kg into low earth orbit and 1250 kg to geosynchronous transfer orbit.
Following successful launches were conducted in 1976, 1978, 1982 and 1983. All of these were satellites, which are then returned to Earth.
29 January 1984, there was another failure. When you first launch real missiles of a new modification of CZ-3, which carried the satellite East is Red 2) due to unidentified interference of the third stage of the rocket never reached its planned orbit.
After this happened on average two or three starts per year. Was built two new launch site, gradually have evolved a family of launch vehicles.
April 7, 1990 was a momentous event — was launched on the satellite (“Star Asia -1”) — the first commercial satellite in China, built for foreign partners. That is, since then, Tikhonovich beginning to bring money into the state budget. After this incident the services of the PRC began to use more and more countries — from Thailand to Brazil.
About it even Newspapers wrote -)
20 November 1999, there was a new milestone was developed and launched first unmanned aerial vehicle (Heavenly boat-1). The launch vehicle performed all the same “the Great trek”, but new modifications
Unmanned aerial vehicle (Heavenly boat-1)
25 may 2003 was passed another wand — launched the first satellite navigation system (Big dipper-1).
15 October 2003 in the space marked the first Chinese cosmonaut (Lee Wei Yan).
The number of starts increased from year to year. If in 2006 there were conducted 6 launches, in 2007, already there have been 10, in 2008 — 11, in 2010 — 15, 2011, and 2012 19.
24 October 2007 we launched the first Chinese satellite of the moon(moon fairy 1)
September 27, 2008, the first taikonaut out into open space. His name was (Zhai Zhigang). The flight was on (the Celestial boat-7)
October 1, 2010 was launched the second satellite of the moon.
June 18, 2012 in space visited the first woman taikonaut — Liu Yang)
And since 2012, the Chinese space Agency realized that space must promote.
Everything is managed from (the Beijing flight control center).
People are happy with the progress.
The staff of the Beijing MCC enjoyed a successful launch of the space station (heavenly Palace-1)
Chinese President Hu Jintao congratulated the crew of the ship the boat from Heaven-9).
June 26, 2012
Allowed media presence on places of landing modules and ships.
June 29, 2012
Allowed media presence at the launch sites
June 11, 2013
Held video talks with the crews of the space station in a live broadcast.
The last launch currently was held on 31 March 2014. Only according to official data there was 189 runs, of which 8 ended in failure, partial failure — 1. Today in China there are three spaceport — Taiyuan), Jiuquan) and Xichang).
The family of launch vehicles consists of several models — from ultralight CZ-2 to CZ superheavy-9, which will print up to 130 tons into low orbit and up to 50 tons into geostationary orbit
In orbit there is a space station, which has already visited dozens of taikonauts. Preparing to launch the second model, after which the first will be decommissioned.
Chinese orbital space station (heavenly Palace-1)