The most important mysteries of the solar system
The earth is the home of humankind. Can be considered and the Solar system. After all, we already went to the moon, our spacecraft has reached other planets. It would seem that about the area of Land we need to know everything.
Actually mankind for decades trying to unravel such close and such mysterious phenomena. Describe below of the top ten mysteries of the Solar system.
The Oort Cloud. The main issue regarding this site is that whether there is any? This is perhaps the chief mystery of our Solar system. Scientists have suggested the existence of clouds only hypothetically, but this piece of the Universe no one has seen. The theories then formed comets with long orbital period. Scientists can only assume that the Oort cloud is at a distance of 50-100 thousand.e. from the Sun. The bounds of this object lying on the very edge of the Solar system. The billions of bodies are from the cloud is bound by gravity to the Sun.
Anomalous behavior of probes “pioneer”. People cannot explain the behavior of spacecraft, which suddenly begin to deviate from the course. In 1972 and 1973 were launched probes “pioneer-10” and “pioneer 11”. The purpose of the flight was to be the study of the outer limits of our Solnechnoye. However, over time, specialists from NASA noticed that the devices have significantly altered its original course. Perhaps so affected by the gravity of the Sun? But a more detailed study of the velocity probes revealed that they acted kind of an unknown weak force. Around of this phenomenon was constructed a few theories. One of them explained this behavior of the devices of infrared radiation around their hulls. This could result in the release of Photons from one side of the objects. Such a stream could be a small push in the direction of the Sun. Other theories even more fantastic. So the mystery still remains unexplained.
The Kuiper Belt. This astronomical object studied for a long time. Only here the scientists are not clear, why it so abruptly ends? The Kuiper belt is called a large cluster of asteroids located in the Solar system beyond Neptune. They form a kind of halo around our star. The belt consists of millions of stone and metal asteroids. Middle of them are 200 times more of those objects flying around in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. It is in the Kuiper belt was found at the time of the dwarf planet Pluto. This space has not been studied people. Only in 2015 will come here of the NASA probe “New horizons” to study Pluto. So while it remains unclear why the belt the number of objects at a distance of 50 and.e. unexpectedly decreases. It’s quite strange, because all the symptom with distance from the Sun the number of objects should only increase. Among the theories are quite interesting, according to which this behavior explains the existence of an unknown large planet. It attracts objects. Even the planet named Nibiru or planet X.
Cosmic dust in comets. A mystery is like space dust bursting at high temperatures, suddenly finds herself in the ice of comets. These cosmic bodies are made of frozen liquids and solids. In the system they appear from the hypothetical Oort cloud or from the Kuiper belt. At the time NASA was able with the help of the “Stardust-2004” to take samples of material from the comet Wild-2. It appeared that in frozen body of the comet has particles that formed at very high temperatures. But how did they get here, because their formation requires a temperature of over 1000 Kelvin? Indeed, in the Kuiper belt this can not be! Our Solar system originated from a nebula about 4.6 billion years ago. During the cooling of a formed disk of enormous proportions. Those samples that have been found in comets could be formed in the Central portions, around a nascent Sun. But as they were on the outskirts of the system? This mechanism still remains a mystery to scientists.
The temperature of the Solar corona. Known that the temperature near the Sun is greater than on its surface. For dozens of years scientists can not explain this riddle. The first studies of using spectroscope showed that in the solar atmosphere the temperature reaches a million Kelvin. But the Photosphere is much more cold, there are “only” 6 thousand Kelvin. It is difficult to reconcile with the laws of physics. For example, burning light bulbs, the air around the spiral can’t be hotter than she is. Scientists only assume that the Sun’s corona may be heated due to the action of magnetic forces in the star’s atmosphere. This mechanism can generate any waves plugs, or Microsystem or two of these factors simultaneously.
The Atmosphere Of Titan. Of all the Saturnian moons Titan stands out. Because it is the only solar system planet-satellite with the atmosphere. Titanium 1.8 times larger than the moon, and all satellites in the system, it is second only to Ganymede, orbiting around Jupiter. The basis of the atmosphere of Titan is nitrogen. She is one and a half times denser than earth’s. Nitrogen is in our atmosphere, about the same proportions – 78% vs. 95%. However, it is unclear from where the Titan appeared nitrogen to create the atmosphere.
The Tilt Of Uranus. Uranus is a strange planet. Because almost all the planets in our system rotate on their axes in a relatively vertical position. But Uranus spins lying on its side. Its axis is tilted 98 degrees. This situation leads to the fact that for a long period (about 42 years) pole of Uranus turns to look at our star. This unusual phenomenon may be associated with the collision of this planet with the once large space object which and so smutil axis. Another version says that this is a result of the interaction of gravitational forces of Saturn and Jupiter.
The Tunguska meteorite. In the Solar system many mysterious bodies. One of them collided in 1908 with our planet. About the nature of “guest” we have learned nothing. However, this meteorite has caused a tremendous explosion in the forest, near the river Tunguska. Eyewitnesses of the events told about the bright lights, he was seen in different parts of the world. 80 million trees on an area of 2000 km2 were felled in the blink of an eye a monstrous force. Burnt out a huge area. But most interesting is that the impact crater was a body, and found. Scientists speculated on what it could be. Was it a comet, asteroid or accident of the spacecraft of another civilization?
The Mysteries Of Mars. Scientists have found that hemisphere of Mars are quite different from each other. The Northern half is flat, but the southern part is almost all composed of mountain ranges and craters. At the Institute Caltech studies have been conducted, according to him this could be a result of contact with a huge cosmic body with a diameter of from 1,600 to 2,700 km. It would and could cause depressions in the Northern hemisphere, erasing the mountains. Another mystery of Mars – the mysterious disappearance sent there research vehicles. According to statistics, crashes two out of three expeditions to this planet. Lost on Mars robots, probes and other equipment.
The temperature difference at the poles of the Sun. The fact that the temperature of the Sun is unevenly distributed, it is already known. However, it appeared that the star and the pole is not equal. So, the North pole of the Sun where hot South. This information has been obtained thanks to solar probe “Ulysses”. He is 17 years sent us data about the Sun. This expedition showed that the North pole is 80 thousand Kelvin hotter South. To measure the temperature of stars “Ulysses” took samples of oxygen ions from the solar wind at a distance of 300 million kilometers from the sun. The experiments were conducted alternately on each pole of the Sun. Scientists suggest that this can be explained by different structure of the poles of the star, which is the difference in temperatures.