The story of the creation of the ISS
In 1984, U.S. President Ronald Reagan announced the beginning of works on creation of an American space station.
In 1988 the station was named “Freedom” (“Freedom”). At that time it was a joint project of USA, ESA, Canada and Japan. Planned managed large station modules which will be delivered on orbit by space shuttles. But by the beginning of 1990-ies it became clear that the cost of developing the project is too large and only international cooperation will allow to create such a station. The USSR, already had experience of creation and injection into orbit, orbital stations “Salyut” and “Mir” space station, planned in the early 1990s, the creation of the station “Mir-2”, but due to economic difficulties, the project was suspended.
17 June 1992 the U.S. and Russia signed an agreement on cooperation in space research. In accordance with the Russian space Agency and NASA have developed a joint program “Mir — Shuttle”. This programme provided for the safety of American ships reusable “space Shuttle” to the Russian space station Mir, the inclusion of a Russian cosmonaut in the crew of the American Shuttle and American astronauts in the crew of the Soyuz spacecraft and the Mir station.
During the implementation of the program”Mir — Shuttle” was born the idea of unification of national programmes for the creation of orbital stations.
In March 1993, the General Director RKA Yury Koptev and General designer of NPO Energia Yuri Semenov offered the head of NASA Daniel Goldin to create the International space station.
In 1993 in the USA, many politicians were against the construction of the space station. In June 1993, the U.S. Congress discussed the proposal to abandon the creation of the International space station. This proposal was not accepted by a margin of only one vote: 215 votes for refusal, 216 votes for the construction of the station.
September 2, 1993 Vice-President of the United States al Gore and Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Federation Victor Chernomyrdin announced a new project “truly international space station”. From this moment the official name of the station became “international space station”, although used in parallel and unofficial — space station “alpha”.